Response to Intervention (RtI) and Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
RtI is a process designed to help schools focus on and provide high quality instruction and interventions to students who may be struggling with learning. An intervention is a specific type of instruction that is used to help with a specific type of problem. Interventions are matched to student needs. Student progress is monitored often to check the effectiveness of the instruction and interventions. The data collected on a student’s progress are used to shape instruction and make educational decisions. Use of an RtI process can help avoid a “wait to fail” situation because students get help promptly within the general education environment. RtI has three important parts: 1) A multi-tiered model of school supports, 2) Using a problem solving method for decision-making at each tier, and 3) Using data to inform instruction at each tier (ISBE).
When a student is participating in an RtI process, data showing that the student has a significant skill deficit and is making insufficient progress, even when provided with intense, research-based interventions, could lead the school team to suspect that the student has a disability that may require special education services. Another possible consideration is the student’s need to receive ongoing, additional, and substantial specialized supports and services in order to participate and make progress in the general education curriculum. To determine special education eligibility, existing data collected during the RtI process will be used as an important source of evaluation information. The school team, which includes a student’s parents, will determine if these data are sufficient to determine eligibility or if additional evaluation data are needed. During this process, the interventions the student has been receiving should continue to be provided.
PBIS - Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports is a prevention-orientated multi-tiered framework for school personnel to
a) Organize evidence-based practices,
b) Implement those practices with high fidelity, and
c) Maximize academic and social behavioral outcomes for all students (Sugai
et al., 1999).
PBIS is grounded in the following:
1. Targeted social skills instruction,
2. Positive school and classroom social cultures where teaching and learning
3. Challenging and engaging instructional practices that maximize academic
success for all students,
4. Continuous, positive, and active supervision and monitoring of student
behavior and learning,
5. Regular, frequent, and positive acknowledgements and reinforcement for
students who display academic and social behavioral success,
6. Active involvement of all students, families, faculty, and community
7. Multi-year and multi-component approaches to implementation, and
8. Adults who model the same positive social behaviors and values expected
of students.The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is a unit within the U.S. Department of Education – OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports